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June 2019

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Background and Purpose

One of the key roles of the MENA H Coalition, within its role as the Applicant of the Global Fund supported Middle East and North Africa Multi-country Grant, is oversight of grant implementation.

The role of the Grant Advisory Board (GAB) would be to provide insight and feedback on implementation to both in country and regional activities.


Who are we looking for?

Each member of the GAB shall fulfill the following criteria:

  • Members of the GAB must be prepared to commit the time required to fulfill their duties as specified in these Terms of Reference and in the Oversight Plan.
  • GAB members must not be directly involved in program implementation if at all possible; where this is not possible mitigation arrangements need to be put in place via the conflict of interest guidance.
  • Technical competencies. The GAB membership should collectively possess certain core expertise that will enable the group to effectively identify, address and monitor a broad range of risks and challenges. Each member of the GAB must therefore possess proven expertise and experience in one or more of the following areas:
  • Program management and implementation
  • Financial management, including budgeting, accounting, tax and regulatory issues, auditing
  • M&E
  • Disease-specific expertise
  • Bio prevention and treatment
  • Human Rights
  • Gender and Equality
  • Advocacy
  • Organisational Development
  • Resource Mobilization
  • Governance
  • Key Population Expertise
  • Sustainability



Underpinning Principles

The work of the GAB is based upon the following principles and all members must abide by these principles.

Partnership – The only way to defeat AIDS is by working together, including government, civil society, and communities living with the disease, technical partners, the private sector, faith-based organisations, academics, and other multilateral and bilateral agencies. All those involved in the fight should be involved in the decision-making process. The GAB will communicate and coordinate as needed with other Global Fund supported regional bodies, such as the Technical Support Group of the Middle East Response grant and the MENA Regional Civil Society and Community Support, Coordination and Communication Platform.

Country Ownership – The countries where are our regional networks support program to fight AIDS know how to solve their own problems. The principle of country ownership means that countries determine their own solutions to fighting the disease and take full responsibility for ensuring the implementation of these solutions.

Consensus – The GAB operates as a consensus group designed to promote strategic partnership in the development and implementation of HIV services for Key Populations.

Aligned to national health policies – The GAB ensures that program implementation is aligned and harmonized with the thrust and direction of the health sector and other regional/national policies on the promotion of health in the MENA region.

Key Affected Populations – The GAB recognizes that key affected populations contribute valuable insights, guidance, and oversight to implementing organisations as Board Members, staff, grant recipients, technical assistance providers and beneficiaries – due to their direct experience and personal investment in the response to HIV.

The GAB determines that a group will be deemed to be a key population if it has been identified as one of the Key Population groups which the grant focuses on, namely:

  1. Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and their partners.
  2. People who sell sex (SW) and their partners and clients.
  • People who inject drugs (PWID) and their partners.


Key Populations in the HIV Response:

Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men; women, men and transgender people who inject drugs, and/or who are sex workers; as well as all transgender people, are socially marginalized, often criminalized and face a range of human rights abuses that increase their vulnerability to HIV. In every nation that reliably collects and accurately reports surveillance data, gay men and other men who have sex with men, women and men who inject drugs, sex workers, and transgender people – in particular transgender women – have higher HIV risk, mortality and/or morbidity when compared to the general population. Access to, or uptake of, relevant services is significantly lower for these sub-populations than for other groups. AIDS is the second highest cause of death among adolescent and young people globally. The MENA region is traditionally a conservative region with serious challenges to effectively assessing and addressing HIV among young people. Adolescent and young people have been consistently left behind in the MENA HIV response, not only regarding meaningful participation, but also accessing needed services. The GAB is committed to ensuring representation of key populations in the GAB itself.


The GAB recognizes that women contribute valuable insights, guidance, and oversight due to their direct experience and personal investment in the response to HIV. The GAB also recognizes that gender inequality does exist and that it must do all that it can to address that inequality. In order to achieve this, the GAB will work to support the engagement of women representatives and women’s organisations, including organisations of women living with or affected by HIV/AIDS, in its processes. The GAB is committed to:

  • Ensuring that the GAB processes effectively address gender inequalities within the project.
  • Ensuring women living with HIV have the opportunity to represent their networks.
  • Ensuring gender issues are specifically addressed when determining membership renewal.
  • Ensure representation and diversity of gender in the GAB itself


GAB Structure

  1. The GAB shall have a two-phased approach over the three-year grant.
  2. In Year 1 the GAB will be a standing committee of the MENA H Coalition and shall comprise eight members, as follows:

Five technical/programmatic members, one from each country implementing the program

  • One member representing the MENA H Coalition
  • Two members representing regional offices of Multilateral agencies


  1. The members specified should not be staff members whose salaries are fully or partially funded by the grant whose only responsibility is working on grant implementation. This is to support mitigation for conflict of interest.
  2. The five technical/programmatic members are not representing their country per say but rather are bringing specific expertise to the GAB that will support its oversight role.
  3. In Year 2 of the grant the GAB will shift to being supported/hosted by UNAIDS and will no longer be a standing committee of the MENA H Coalition, but rather a standalone entity.




Membership term    

Members of the GAB shall be elected or appointed for an initial term of one year.

Members can be reappointed for the following two years subject to performance, engagement and commitment to the GAB. This will be determined by the following criteria:

  1. Attendance. Members must attend at least 75% of meetings.
  2. Communication. Members must proactively communicate with the GAB and respond to emails and other communications in a timely manner.
  • Commitment. Members must deliver on any commitment they make to the GAB within the time specified.
  1. Adherence. Members must abide by the underpinning principles and general terms of this Terms of Reference.

The GAB will determine a process to evaluate performance against these criteria if necessary.



Requirements and Application

Please send an email to (MENA H Coalition Coordinator) with the following:

  • Please specify [ Grant Advisory Board ] as the subject of your email
  • Attach your updated 2019 Curriculum Vitae (CV)
  • Attach an Expression of interest of 1000 words addressing the following questions
    1. Specific technical expertise that you bring to the GAB
    2. Specific experience that you have had working with Key Populations and People Living with HIV
    3. Experience in working at the regional level
    4. You understanding of the Global Fund Multi Country grant and what is hopes to achieve
  • Attach two references who could vouch for you and support your nomination
  • Please declare any conflict of interest which you seem necessary
  • You may send your information in English, Arabic or French



The deadline for submission of applications is Monday 8th of July by Close of Business


Contexte et objectif

L’un des rôles clés de la Coalition MENA H, dans le cadre de son rôle de demandeur du don multi-pays pour le Moyen-Orient et l’Afrique du Nord financé par le Fonds mondial, consiste à superviser la mise en œuvre du don.

Le Conseil consultatif des subventions (GAB) aurait pour rôle de fournir des informations et des informations sur la mise en œuvre aux activités nationales et régionales.


Qui cherchons nous?

Chaque membre du GAB remplira les critères suivants:

  • Les membres du GAB doivent être prêts à consacrer le temps nécessaire pour s’acquitter de leurs tâches telles que spécifiées dans le présent mandat et dans le plan de surveillance.
  • Indépendance. Les membres du GAB ne doivent pas participer directement à la mise en œuvre du programme, si possible; lorsque cela n’est pas possible, des dispositions d’atténuation doivent être mises en place via les directives relatives aux conflits d’intérêts.
  • Compétences techniques Les membres du GAB doivent posséder collectivement certaines compétences de base qui permettront au groupe d’identifier, de gérer et de contrôler efficacement un large éventail de risques et de défis. Chaque membre du GAB doit donc posséder une expertise et une expérience confirmées dans un ou plusieurs des domaines suivants:
  • Gestion et mise en oeuvre du programme
  • Gestion financière, y compris budgétisation, comptabilité, fiscalité et réglementation, audit
  • MOI
  • Expertise spécifique à une maladie
  • Bio prévention et traitement
  • Droits de l’homme
  • Genre et égalité
  • Plaidoyer
  • Développement organisationnel
  • Mobilisation des ressources
  • La gouvernance
  • Expertise de la population clé
  • Durabilité



Principes Fondateurs

Le travail du GAB est basé sur les principes suivants et tous les membres doivent se conformer à ces principes.

Partenariat – Le seul moyen de vaincre le sida est de travailler ensemble: gouvernement, société civile, communautés touchées par la maladie, partenaires techniques, secteur privé, organisations confessionnelles, universitaires et autres organismes multilatéraux et bilatéraux. Toutes les personnes impliquées dans la lutte devraient être impliquées dans le processus de prise de décision. Le PAB communiquera et coordonner au besoin avec d’ autres Fonds mondial appuyé les organismes régionaux, tels que le Groupe de soutien technique du Moyen – Orient et subvention de réponse de la société civile de la région MENA R et soutien communautaire, la coordination et la communication Plate-forme.

Propriété des pays – Les pays où nos réseaux régionaux soutiennent des programmes de lutte contre le sida savent comment résoudre leurs propres problèmes. Le principe de l’appropriation par les pays signifie que les pays déterminent leurs propres solutions pour lutter contre la maladie et assument l’entière responsabilité de la mise en œuvre de ces solutions.

Consensus – Le GAB fonctionne comme un groupe de consensus conçu pour promouvoir un partenariat stratégique dans le développement et la mise en œuvre de services de lutte contre le VIH pour les populations clés.

Aligné sur les politiques de santé nationales – Le GAB veille à ce que la mise en œuvre du programme soit alignée et harmonisée avec l’orientation et les orientations du secteur de la santé et des autres politiques régionales / nationales de promotion de la santé dans la région MENA.

Populations touchées – Le GAB reconnaît que les populations affectées apportent des informations précieuses, des conseils et une supervision aux organisations chargées de la mise en œuvre en tant que membres du conseil, membres du personnel, bénéficiaires de subventions, fournisseurs d’assistance technique et bénéficiaires – en raison de leur expérience directe et de leur investissement personnel dans la lutte contre le VIH .

Le GAB détermine qu’un groupe sera considéré comme une population clé s’il a été identifié comme l’un des groupes de population clés sur lesquels la subvention se concentre , à savoir:

  1. Hommes homosexuels, bisexuels et autres ayant des rapports sexuels avec des hommes (HSH) et leurs partenaires.
  2. Les personnes qui vendent du sexe (SW) et leurs partenaires et clients.
  • Les utilisateurs de drogues injectables et leurs partenaires.


Populations clés dans la réponse au VIH:

Gays, bisexuels et autres hommes ayant des rapports sexuels avec des hommes; les femmes, les hommes et les personnes transgenres qui s’injectent des drogues et / ou qui sont des travailleurs du sexe; de même que toutes les personnes transgenres, sont socialement marginalisées, souvent criminalisées et font face à une série de violations des droits de l’homme qui augmentent leur vulnérabilité au VIH. Dans tous les pays qui collectent et rapportent de manière fiable les données de surveillance, les homosexuels et les hommes ayant des rapports sexuels avec des hommes, les prostituées et les personnes transgenres – en particulier les femmes transgenres – présentent un risque plus élevé de VIH, de mortalité et ou la morbidité par rapport à la population générale. L’accès aux services pertinents, ou leur utilisation, est considérablement plus faible pour ces sous-populations que pour les autres groupes. Le sida est la deuxième cause de mortalité chez les adolescents et les jeunes du monde. La région MENA est traditionnellement une région conservatrice à des défis sérieux à l’ évaluation efficace et lutte contre le VIH chez les jeunes. Les adolescents et les jeunes ont toujours été laissés pour compte dans la riposte au VIH dans la région MENA , non seulement en ce qui concerne une participation significative, mais également pour l’accès aux services nécessaires. Le GAB s’est engagé à assurer la représentation des populations clés au sein même du GAB.

Le sexe

Le GAB reconnaît que les femmes apportent des idées, des conseils et une surveillance précieux en raison de leur expérience directe et de leur investissement personnel dans la riposte au VIH. Le GAB reconnaît également que l’inégalité entre les sexes existe et qu’il doit faire tout ce qui est en son pouvoir pour remédier à cette inégalité. Pour ce faire, le GAB s’emploiera à soutenir l’engagement des femmes représentantes et des organisations féminines, y compris les organisations de femmes vivant avec le VIH / sida ou touchées par celui-ci, dans ses processus. Le GAB s’est engagé à:

  • S’assurer que les processus GAB s’attaquent efficacement aux inégalités de genre dans le projet .
  • Faire en sorte que les femmes vivant avec le VIH aient la possibilité de représenter leurs réseaux.
  • S’assurer que les questions de genre sont spécifiquement abordées lors de la détermination du renouvellement de l’adhésion.
  • Assurer la représentation et la diversité des genres dans le GAB même


Structure GAB

  1. Le GAB adoptera une approche en deux phases sur la subvention de trois ans.
  2. Au cours de la première année, le GAB sera un comité permanent de la MENA H Coalition et comprendra huit membres, comme suit:
  3. 5 membres techniques / programmatiques, un de chaque pays mettant en œuvre le programme
  4. 1 membre représentant la MENA H Coalition
  • 2 membres représentant des bureaux régionaux des agences multilatérales


  1. Les membres spécifiés dans i . , ii. et iii. ne doivent pas être des membres du personnel dont les salaires sont entièrement ou partiellement financés par la subvention et dont la seule responsabilité est de veiller à leur mise en œuvre. Cela vise à atténuer les conflits d’intérêts.
  2. Les cinq membres techniques / programmatiques ne représentent pas leur pays en tant que tel, mais apportent plutôt une expertise spécifique au GAB qui soutiendra son rôle de supervision.
  3. Au cours de la deuxième année de la subvention, le PAB passera de l’ONUSIDA au soutien et sera hébergé et ne sera plus un comité permanent de la Coalition MENA H, mais une entité autonome.




Terme d’adhésion              

Les membres du GAB sont élus ou nommés pour un mandat initial d’un an.

Les membres peuvent être renommés pour les deux années suivantes sous réserve de performance, d’engagement et d’engagement envers le GAB. Cela sera déterminé par les critères suivants:

  1. Présence. Les membres doivent assister à au moins 75% des réunions.
  2. La communication. Les membres doivent communiquer de manière proactive avec le GAB et répondre aux courriels et autres communications dans les meilleurs délais.
  • Engagement. Les membres doivent respecter leur engagement vis-à-vis du GAB dans les délais impartis.
  1. Adhérence. Les membres doivent respecter les principes fondamentaux et les conditions générales du présent mandat.

Le GAB déterminera un processus pour évaluer la performance par rapport à ces critères si nécessaire.



Conditions requises et application

Veuillez envoyer un courrier électronique à (coordinateur de la coalition MENA H) avec les informations suivantes:

1-       Veuillez spécifier [Conseil consultatif des subventions] comme sujet de votre courrier électronique.

2-       Joignez votre Curriculum Vitae (CV) 2019 mis à jour.

3-       Joignez une expression d’intérêt de 1 000 mots aux questions suivantes.

  1. Expertise technique spécifique que vous apportez au GAB
  2. Expérience spécifique que vous avez vécue avec des populations clés et des personnes vivant avec le VIH
  3. Expérience de travail au niveau régional
  4. Vous comprenez la subvention multi-pays du Fonds mondial et ce que vous espérez réaliser

4-       Joignez deux références pouvant attester de votre candidature et appuyer votre candidature.

5-       Veuillez déclarer tout conflit d’intérêts que vous jugez nécessaire

6-       Vous pouvez envoyer vos informations en anglais, arabe ou français

La date limite de dépôt des candidatures est le lundi 8 e de Juillet par fermeture des bureaux.

By | Lesbian Women and WSW, LGBT Health

نصائح حول الصحّة الجنسيّة للمثليّات والنساء اللواتي يمارسن الجنس مع نساء

تتأثر صحة المثليّات والنساء اللواتي يمارسن الجنس مع النساء بمجموعة من العوامل الاجتماعية والهيكلية والسلوكية بما في ذلك جذور متعمّقة من وصمة العار والتمييز. يوثّق عدد محدود من الأدبيات القضايا الصحية التي تؤثر بشكل غير متناسب على الأقليات الجنسية بما في ذلك مشاكل الصحة النفسيّة واستخدام المواد المخدّرة واحتياجات الصحة الطبية والجنسية. نتيجة لذلك، تتطلّب هذه الفئة احتياجات صحية فريدة لا يتم تلبيتها من قبل مقدّمي خدمات الرعاية الصحية الحالية.

ما هي بعض العقبات والمخاوف الصحية؟

  • يفتقر بعض المتخصصين في الرعاية الصحية إلى المعرفة باحتياجات الرعاية الصحية الخاصّة بالنساء اللواتي يمارسن الجنس مع نساء أو لديهم مواقف سلبية تجاههنّ.
  • قد تؤجل أو تتجنب هؤلاء النّساء البحث عن الخدمات بسبب خبراتها الماضية في التمييز أو رهاب المثلية المتصورة في نظام الرعاية الصحية.
  • يتردد البعض في الكشف عن ميولهن الجنسية و / أو تعبيرهم الجندري، مما قد يعني أنهنّ لا يتلقين الرعاية المناسبة.
  • قد يتأثر الوصول لهذه الخدمات بالمستوى العلمي للشخص ودخله، ومعرفته بصحة هؤلاء النساء والمعتقدات الثقافية.
  • تعدّ اضطرابات الصحة النفسيّة عند هؤلاء النساء مصدر قلق كبير.

النساء اللواتي يمارسن الجنس مع نساء أخريات لسن محصّنات ضد الألتهابات المنقولة جنسياً. النّساء هؤلاء النّساء هم عرضة للالتهابات المنقولة بالاتصال الجنسي مثل الهربس والثآليل التناسلية والكلاميديا عند تبادل سوائل الجسم. اي تواصل فردي بين شخصين، مثل ممارسة الجنس الفموي او استخدام نفس اليد للمس المرأة لنفسها او شريكتها يمكن ان يعرّضهما للانتقال الالتهابات. ويزداد خطر انتقال الالتهابات اذا كانت الامرأتان تمرّان في عوارض الدورة الشهريّة.

نصائح حول ممارسة الجنس الآمن

اذا كنتنّ تستعملن العاب جنسيّة، استخدمن واقي جديد لكل شريكة او بين الادخال. الالعاب الجنسيّ’ يجب ان تغسل بالمياه والصابون بين الجلسات.

تجنّبن الجنس الفموي اذا كانت اي شريكة لديها أي جروح أو تقرحات في الفم أو على الشفاه، أو تضع مقوّم أسنان.

بعض الالتهابات يمكن ان تتنتقل عبر اليدين والاصابع والاحتكاك المتبادل. اغسلي يديك جيّداً قبل وبعد الممارسة الجنسيّة.

البسي كفوف بلاستيكيّة واستعملي الكثير من المزلّق على اساس المياه عند ادخال قبضة اليد او في المهبل او في الشرج.

الهربس التناسلي – فيروس الهربس سيمبلز HSV1 و HSV2

–         التعريف:

هو التهاب فيروسي يسببه فيروس الهربس سمبلكس الذي يدخل إلى الجسم من خلال شقوق صغيرة موجودة في الجلد أو في الأنسجة التي تفرز المُخاط.

–         الانتقال:

ملامسة الجلد المباشر

الجنس المهبلي أو الشرجي أو الفموي من دون حماية.

–         العوارض:

معظم الوقت لا يسبب الهربس أي عوارض. و لكن عندما تكون هناك علامات، فإنها يمكن أن تشمل تقرحات حول الأعضاء التناسلية أو فتحة الشرج مع ألم وحرق عند التبول. أول اندلاع للتقرحات هو عادة الأسوأ.

–         العلاج:

ليس هنالك، حتى الآن علاج شاف تماما لفيروس الهربس التناسلي، فهو سيبقى في جهازك.

هناك  ادوية يتم استعمالها لتعجيل شفاء الجروح ولتقليل وتيرة النوبات المتكررة.


  • التعريف :

عدوى بكتيرية كثيرة الانتشار تنتقل عبر الاتصال الجنسي الغير المحمي مع شخص آخر.

  • الانتقال:

تنتقل الكلاميديا خلال الجنس المهبلي أو الشرجي أو الفموي و عبر أصابع اليديين المصابة إلى العينين.

تصيب الكلاميديا القضيب، المهبل، عنق الرحم، فتحة الشرج، مجرى البول، العينين، والحلق.

  • العوارض:

 انها واحدة من الأمراض المنقولة جنسيا الأكثر شيوعا، ومعظم الناس الذين لديهم الكلاميديا لا تظهر عندهم  أي عوارض. في حوالي 80٪ من النساء و 50٪ من الرجال مصابون بالكلاميديا دون ان تكون هناك اي اعراض

العوارض الشائعة هي الإفرازات التناسلية غير العادية و / أو الألم والحرق عند التبول.

–          العلاج:

 يتم علاج الكلاميديا بالمضادات الحيوية. بعض المضادات الحيوية يمكن علاج استخدامها مرة واحدة ، في حين أن البعض الآخر قد تحتاج إلى أن تستخدمها لعدة ايام.

 فيروس الورم الحليمي البشري

–         التعريف:

ينتقل فيروس الورم الحليمي البشري عبر العلاقات الجنسية الغير محمية  و 50٪ على الأقل من الناس الناشطين جنسيا يصابون به في وقت ما في حياتهم. يتخلص الجسم عادة من فيروس الورم الحليمي البشري دون التسبب بأي مشاكل، ولكن فيروس الورم الحليمي البشري قد يؤدي إلى أنواع معينة من السرطان في حال عدم معالجته.

–         الانتقال:

ينتقل فيروس الورم الحليمي البشري عبر الاتصال المباشر بالجلد و العلاقات الجنسية المهبلية، الشرجية و الفموية.

قد ينتقل فيروس الورم الحليمي البشري حتى عندما يكون الشخص المصاب به ليس له علامات أو عوارض قد يحصل أي شخص ناشط جنسيا على فيروس الورم الحليمي البشري، حتى لو كان قد مارس الجنس مع شخص واحد فقط.

–         العوارض:

يمكن أن يكون الفيروس في جهاز المناعة لمدة 3 أسابيع إلى 8 أشهر (أو أطول) قبل أن تظهر العوارض.

قد تظهر العوارض بشكل تواليل التي تأتي في أشكال وأحجام مختلفة. قد لا يكون لديك تواليل واضحة، ولكن نقل الفيروس للاخرين لا يزال ممكنا.

–         العلاج:

حسب مركز مراقبة الامراض و الوقاية يتخلص جهاز المناعة من HPV خلال سنتين في 90% من الحالات.

هناك عدد قليل من العلاجات المتاحة، مثل تجميد التواليل عبر الغاز و استخدام الكريمات. نوع العلاج يعتمد على حجم وموقع وعدد التواليل.

سوف يبقى الفيروس في جهاز المناعة، وبالتالي فإن التواليل قد تعود.

By | Lesbian Women and WSW, LGBT Health

Key Take Home Messages

The health of Lesbians and women who sleep with women are affected by a range of social, structural and behavioral factors including deep rooted stigma and discrimination. A limited number of literature documents health issues that disproportionally affect sexual minorities including mental health issues, substance use, medical and sexual health needs. As a result, this population has unique health needs that may not be met by existing health care services.

What are some barriers and health concerns?

  • Some health care professionals lack knowledge of WSW persons’ health care needs or have negative attitudes towards them.
  • WSW may postpone or avoid seeking services because of their experiences of past discrimination or perceived homophobia within the healthcare system.
  • Some are hesitant to disclose their sexual orientation or/and gender expression, which may mean they do not receive appropriate care.
  • Access may be affected by a person’s education and income level, knowledge on WSW health and cultural beliefs.
  • Mental health disorders are of significant concern among WSW.


Women who sleep with other women are not immune from sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Women can catch STIs such as herpes, genital warts and chlamydia when exchanging bodily fluids. Any one-on-one contact, such as oral sex or using the same hand when touching yourself and then your partner, can put you at risk. Two women menstruating are at a higher risk too.


Tips for safer sex between women

If you’re using sex toys, use a condom for each partner or between penetration. Sex toys should be washed with soap and water between sessions.

Avoid oral sex if either of you has any cuts or sores in the mouth or on the lips, or use a dental dam.

Some infections can be transmitted by hands, fingers and mutual rubbing. Wash your hands before and after sex.

Wear latex gloves and use plenty of water-based lubricant for vaginal or anal fisting.


Symptoms of STI’s in Women

Thrush is caused by an overgrowth of yeast. Symptoms may include vaginal itching, pain and soreness on penetration, burning when urinating and thick, white discharge.

It is possible for women to transmit thrush during sex through and sharing sex toys.

Thrush can be treated with medicated cream and tablets.

Genital herpes (Herpes simples’ virus, HSV and HSV2

This is caused by a virus, which can spread if you have vaginal, anal or oral sex, or share toys. It can also cause cold cores on the mouth or nose.

  1. a) Description

It is a virus caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) which enters the body through small cracks in the skin or in the tissues that secrete the mucus.

  1. b) Transmission

Direct Skin to skin contact.

Unprotected Vaginal, anal, oral sex, or sharing toys

Unprotected rimming.

  1. c) Symptoms

Most of the time herpes does not cause any symptoms. When there are signs, they can include painful blisters and ulcers around the genital area or cold sores (oral herpes) around the mouth. The first outbreak of sores is usually the worst

  1. d) Treatment

Until now there is no permanent cure for herpes, however, prescribed medication can reduce discomfort during an outbreak. The virus will stay in your system, so you may have further outbreaks.


Genital warts

  1. Description

These are fleshy growths in the vaginal and anal region. They are caused by certain strains of human papilloma virus (HPV).

  1. Transmission

Direct skin to skin contact, such as vaginal rubbing together.

  1. Symptoms


Small, flesh-colored or grey swellings in your genital area.


Itching or discomfort in your genital area


Bleeding with intercourse


  1. Treatment


Women with genital warts do not need more regular pap smears than those without them. Cryotherapy is another option for treatment. It involves the freezing of warts using liquid nitrogen. Laser treatments are also available for warts that are more extensive or for recurring cases.




  1. a) Description

Chlamydia is a super common bacterial infection that you can get from unprotected sexual contact with another person.

  1. b) Transmission

Chlamydia is spread through vaginal, anal, and oral sex, eyes can catch it from infected fingers. Chlamydia can infect the vagina, cervix, anus, urethra, eyes, and throat.

  1. c) Symptoms

It’s one of the most common STDs, and most people who have chlamydia don’t show any symptoms. Around 80% of women with Chlamydia will have no symptoms.

The common symptoms are unusual genital discharge and/or pain and burning when urinating.

  1. d) Treatment

Chlamydia is treated with antibiotics. Some antibiotics can cure it in just one dose, while others may need to be used for several days.


1.                  Human Papilloma Virus


  1. a) Description

HPV is the most common STI and at least 50% of sexually active people will get it at some time in their lives. The body usually clears HPV on its own without causing any problems, but HPV can lead to certain kinds of cancer.


  1. b) Transmission

HPV is transmitted through direct skin-to-skin contact.

You can get HPV by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex whether protected or not with someone who has the virus. It is most commonly spread during vaginal or anal sex. HPV can be passed even when an infected person has no signs or symptoms.

Anyone who is sexually active can get HPV, even from one sexual encounter.


  1. c) Symptoms

The virus can be in your system for 3 weeks up to 8 months (or longer) before you show symptoms. Some of these symptoms make take shape as warts. They come in different shapes and sizes. You may not have visible warts, but can still pass the virus on to your sexual partner(s).

  1. d) Treatment

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the body’s immune system clears HPV naturally within two years for 90% of cases. There are few treatments available, such as freezing the warts with gas and prescribed creams. The type of treatment will depend on the size, location and number of warts.

The virus will stay in your system, so the warts may come back.


2.                  Gonorrhea

  1. Description


Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection that can infect both men and women. It can cause infections in the genitals, rectum, and throat. It is a very common infection, especially among young people ages 15-24 years. Women with gonorrhea are at risk for serious complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease.


  1. b) Transmission

You can get gonorrhea by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has gonorrhea.  Infected fingers and unprotected rimming can transmit it.

  1. c) Symptoms

A burning sensation when urinating;

A white, yellow, or green discharge

Abdominal pain


  1. d) Treatment

Gonorrhea is treated with antibiotics, usually given in a single dose. If you’re being treated, your partner should be tested too. You should also wait until you and your partner finish your treatment and until your symptoms disappear (if you have them) before you start having sex again. This is to make sure you don’t spread the infection.









3.                  Hepatitis

  1. a) Description

There are three different kinds of hepatitis, some of which are spread more easily than others. Hepatitis A, B and C can all be transmitted sexually, however hepatitis B is the type most likely to be sexually transmitted. All types of hepatitis are serious and affect the liver. Hepatitis B and C are the leading cause of liver cancer and are the most common reason for liver transplants.

  1. Transmission
Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C
–          Unprotected Rimming

–          Through contaminated food or water

–          Unprotected sex


–          Through blood and other body fluids

–          Unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex

–          Sharing equipment such as snorting saws and needles

–          Tattoos and piercing


–           Through blood and other body fluids

–           Unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex

–           Sharing drug equipment

–           Tattoos and piercing






  1. c) Symptoms

Common signs include:

–           Body aches, weakness, tiredness

–           Loss of appetite

–           Nausea or vomiting

–           Diarrhea or constipation

–           Dark urine

–           Light colored stool

–           Fever

–           Headache

–           A dull ache in the right upper side of the abdomen

–           Yellow color to the skin called jaundice

–           Itchy skin

–           Joint pain and rashes

–           Some people with hepatitis have no signs.

  1. d) Treatment

A blood test will show your doctor what type of hepatitis you have. Your treatment will be based on your type of hepatitis and may include:

  • Rest.
  • Take only the prescribed medicines ordered by your doctor. Other medicines can affect your liver.
  • Do not drink alcohol since it can further damage your liver.
  • Do not smoke. Avoid second hand smoke.
  • Eat small portions of low fat foods to decrease nausea.
  • Apply cream often to itchy, dry skin.





1.                  Molluscum Contagiosum

  1. a) Description

Sometimes called water warts, is a viral infection of the skin that results in small, raised, pink lesions with a dimple in the center.


  1. b) Transmission

Direct skin to skin contact. Protected or unprotected oral, anal and vaginal sex.

  1. c) Symptoms


Pearly smooth fluid-filled bumps on your skin. They are most common in the genital area, the inner thighs and the lower abdomen.

  1. d) Treatment


There are many treatment techniques, the most important techniques are: surgery, laser, tea tree oil.



    Pubic lice (crabs)


  1. a) Description


Very small insects that usually infect the hair in the genetic area and the anus. They can also be found on the hair of the legs, armpits, lower abdomen.


  1. b) Transmission

Sexual contact or through sharing clothing, bed linens and towels of someone who has lice.


  1. c) Symptoms


Itching in the genital area and anus. You can also see live lice on your body hair.


  1. d) Treatment


You can buy and use lice-killing lotion and shampoo from the pharmacy. Don’t have sex until you get rid completely from the lice.



2.                  Scabies


  1. a) Description


Scabies are parasites that infect the skin and cause intense itching. Scabies are transferred by skin-to-skin contact and can occur anywhere on the body.



  1. b) Transmission


Scabies can be passed through contact; it is usually passed through non-sexual skin-to-skin contact.


  1. c) Symptoms


Scabies causes intense itching and a pimply rash. The itching will often be worse at night than during the day. Itching and rash most often show up on buttocks, wrist, nipples, waist, shoulder blades, arm pits, elbows and between the fingers, but it is not limited to these areas. If a person has scabies for the first time, it will usually take 2-6 weeks for symptoms to start appearing.


  1. d) Treatment


Prescription creams can be used to treat scabies. These creams kill the mites and some also kill the eggs. There is also an antibiotic that can be taken by mouth in a single dose.




  1. a) Description


It’s a bacterial infection that infects the genital area, mouth and can progress and affect internal organs especially the nervous system.



  1. b) Transmission


It’s transmitted through direct contact with syphilis sores or during unprotected oral, anal and vaginal sex.


  1. c) Symptoms


There are 3 stages of the infection

Primary infection: appear three weeks after exposure as a painless ulcer in the genital, anal, and mouth area.

Secondary Infection: Red spotty rash develops on the palms of hands; soles of feet and it may appear anywhere on your body.

Tertiary syphilis: can happen months or years after infection. There is a possibility of long-term damage to heart and brain. Some other complications of late syphilis include blindness, dementia, aortic aneurysm, and deafness.



  1. d) Treatment


Antibiotics followed up by blood tests to make sure the infection is cleared.



Keeping your vagina healthy

The vagina is self-cleansing, so there’s no need to wash inside it. Vaginal soreness and vulval irritation can be caused by the overuse of perfumed soap, bubble baths, and shower gels.

After going to the toilet, always wipe from front to back (from vagina to anus).

Coming soon

  • Domestic violence
  • Substance use
  • Mental health